China stands out in a map showing major sources of non-fuel mineral commodities of which the U.S. imported more than 50% of its supply in 2016. (Graphic: U.S. Geological Survey)
Lacking any domestic sources at all, the United States imported 100% of its supply of 20 minerals last year, the USGS reports. That number increased from 19 the previous year and 11 in 1984. Included in the 2016 list were rare earths, manganese and niobium, “which are among a suite of materials often designated as ‘critical’ or ‘strategic’ because they are essential to the economy and their supply may be disrupted.”
Imports of rare earth compounds and metals increased 6% over 2015, although the value dropped from $160 million to $120 million. China supplied 72% directly, with other imports coming from Estonia (7%), France (5%), Japan (5%) and other countries (11%).
But the Estonian, French and Japanese material was derived from concentrates produced in China and elsewhere, the USGS added.
American imports of tantalum increased about 40% over 2015. The USGS attributed about 37% of 2016 global production to the Democratic Republic of Congo and 32% to Rwanda. Estimates reverse those numbers for the previous year.
An alphabetical list of the 20 minerals follows, with rare earths, scandium and yttrium each comprising a separate category:
The report listed 50 minerals for which the U.S. imported over half of its supply. Overall China was the largest exporter, with Canada running second.