Zinc-air batteries are promising energy storage devices with high energy density, safety, and economic feasibility (Cai et al., 2017). Most of the volume in the zinc-air battery is occupied by the anode, and hence, it provides up to five times more capacity and three times the energy of common alkaline batteries in a compact package (Duracell, 2004, Harting et al., 2012, MIT Technology, 2021). Primary zinc-air batteries are implemented for medical (hearing aids, cardiac telemetry monitors), military, telecommunication (pagers, wireless messaging), and railway signaling/navigation applications (Duracell, 2004). Due to their low power output capability, zinc-air batteries are commercialized for hearing aid applications (
The zinc-air batteries are promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries as zinc is highly stable, inexpensive (−1h−1, almost two orders of magnitude lower than lithium-ion) and has a higher energy density (∼1353 Wh/kg) (Clark et al., 2018, Toussaint et al., 2010). Zinc-air batteries are expected to reach USD 534 million by 2026 because of the rising demand for low-cost energy storage (solar and wind industries) applications (Newswire, 2021). Recently, a commercial model was developed at a low cost for a long duration for utilities, microgrids, and industrial markets (Zinc8., 2022).
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